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May 20, 2016

Ep #21 Ketamine Induced Rapid Sequence Intubation with Faizan H. Arshad, MD @emscritcare

Happy #EMSWeek #EMSStrong #EMSNation


SKEPTIC = Safety & Efficacy of Ketamine in Emergent Prehospital Tracheal Intubation – a Case Series


Brand new paper from Sydney HEMS on Ketamine and Shock Index in Annals of EM!


Additional References:

  1. Carlson JN, Karns C, Mann NC, et al. Procedures performed by emergency medical services in the united states.Prehosp Emerg Care. 2015.
  2. Jacobs PE, Grabinsky A. Advances in prehospital airway management.International Journal of Critical Illness & Injury Science. 2014;4:57-64.
  3. Prekker ME, Kwok H, Shin J, Carlbom D, Grabinsky A, Rea TD. The process of prehospital airway management: Challenges and solutions during paramedic endotracheal intubation.Crit Care Med. 2014;42:1372-1378.
  4. Wang HE, Kupas DF, Greenwood MJ, et al. An algorithmic approach to prehospital airway management.Prehospital Emergency Care. 2005;9:145-155.
  5. Mace SE. Challenges and advances in intubation: Airway evaluation and controversies with intubation.Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008;26:977-1000.
  6. Combes X, Jabre P, Jbeili C, et al. Prehospital standardization of medical airway management: Incidence and risk factors of difficult airway.Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13:828-834.
  7. Drummond GB. Comparison of sedation with midazolam and ketamine: effects on airway muscle activity. Br J Anaesth. 1996;76:663-667.
  8. Jackson APF, Dhadphale PR, callaghan ML, Alseri S. Haemodynamic studies during induction of anaesthesia for open-heart surgery using diazepam and ketamine. Br J Anaesth. 1978;50:375-378.
  9. Price B, Arthur AO, Brunko M, et al. Hemodynamic consequences of ketamine vs etomidate for endotracheal intubation in the air medical setting. Am J Emerg Med. 2013;31:1124-1132.
  10. Scherzer D, Leder M, Tobias JD. Pro-Con Debate: Etomidate or Ketamine for Rapid Sequence Intubation in Pediatric Patients. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2012;17:142-149.
  11. Bruder Eric A, Ball Ian M, Ridi S, Pickett W, Hohl C. Single induction dose of etomidate versus other induction agents for endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015
  12. Thompson Bastin ML, Baker SN, Weant KA. Effects of Etomidate on Adrenal Suppression: A Review of Intubated Septic Patients.Hospital Pharmacy. 2014;49:177-183.
  13. Arnold C. The promise and perils of ketamine research Ketamine began its life as an anaesthetic , but has enjoyed a recent renaissance as a potential. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12:940-941.
  14. Craven R. Ketamine. Anaesthesia. 2007;62:48-53.
  15. Perkins ZB, Gunning M, Crilly J, Lockey D, O’Brien B. The haemodynamic response to pre-hospital RSI in injured patients. Injury. 2013;44:618-623.
  16. Aroni F, Iacovidou N, Dontas I, Pourzitaki C, Xanthos T. Pharmacological Aspects and Potential New Clinical Applications of Ketamine: Reevaluation of an Old Drug. J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;49:957-964.
  17. Manthous CA. Avoiding circulatory complications during endotracheal intubation and initiation of positive pressure ventilation.J Emerg Med. 2010;38:622-631.
  18. Kohrs R, Durieux ME. Ketamine. Anesth Analg. 1998;87:1186-1193.
  19. Moy RJ, Clerc S Le. Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care Ketamine in prehospital analgesia and anaesthesia. Trends Anaesth Crit Care. 2011;1:243-245.
  20. Reich DL, Silvay G. Ketamine: an update on the first twenty-five years of clinical experience. Can J Anaesth. 1989;36(2):186-197.
  21. Porter K. Ketamine in prehospital care. Emerg Med J. 2004;21:351-354.
  22. Svenson JE, Abernathy MK. Ketamine for prehospital use: new look at an old drug. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25:977-980.
  23. Johansson J, Sjöberg J, Nordgren M, Sandström E, Sjöberg F, Zetterström H. Prehospital analgesia using nasal administration of S-ketamine--a case series. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2013;21:38.
  24. Filanovsky Y, Miller P, Kao J. Myth: Ketamine should not be used as an induction agent for intubation in patients with head injury. Can J Emerg Med. 2010;12:154-201.
  25. Himmelseher S, Durieux ME. Revising a Dogma: Ketamine for Patients with Neurological Injury? Anesth Analg. 2005;101:524-534.
  26. Kropf J a., Grossman MD, Genzlinger M a., Stoltzfus J, Stehly CD. 328 Ketamine versus Etomidate for Rapid Sequence Intubation in Traumatically Injured Patients: An Exploratory Study. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;60:S117.
  27. Angus DC, van dP. Severe sepsis and septic shock.N Engl J Med. 2013;369:840-851.
  28. Jabre P, Avenel A, Combes X, et al. Morbidity related to emergency endotracheal intubation-A substudy of the KETAmine SEDation trial. Resuscitation. 2011;82:517-522.
  29. Shafi S, Gentilello L. Pre-Hospital Endotracheal Intubation and Positive Pressure Ventilation Is Associated with Hypotension and Decreased Survival in Hypovolemic Trauma Patients: An Analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care. 2005;59:1140–1147.
  30. Seymour CW, Band RA, Cooke CR, et al. Out-of-hospital characteristics and care of patients with severe sepsis: A cohort study.J Crit Care. 2010;25:553-562.
  31. Williams E, Arthur a., Price B, Banister NJ, Goodloe JM, Thomas SH. 175 Ketamine versus Etomidate for Use in Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Endotracheal Intubation. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;60:S63-S64
  32. Bruns, B, Gentilello, L, Elliott, A, Shafi, S. Prehospital Hypotension Redefined. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care. 2008;65:1217–1221.
  33. Seymour, CW, Cooke, CR, Heckbert, SR, et al. Prehospital Systolic Blood Pressure Thresholds: A Community-based Outcomes Study. Acad Emerg Med Academic Emergency Medicine. 2013;20:597–604.
  34. Kristensen AKB, Holler JG, Mikkelsen S, Hallas J, Lassen A. Systolic blood pressure and short-term mortality in the emergency department and prehospital setting: a hospital-based cohort study.Critical Care. 2015;1:158.
  35. Heffner AC, Swords DS, Neale MN, Jones AE. Incidence and factors associated with cardiac arrest complicating emergency airway management. Resuscitation. 2013;84:1500-1504.
  36. Salt PJ, Baranes PK, Beswick FJ. Inhibition of neuronal and extraneuronal uptake of noradrenaline by ketamine in the isolated perfused rat heart. Br J Anaesth. 1979;51:835-838.
  37. Sprung J, Schuetz SM, Stewart RW, Moravec CS. Effects of Ketamine on the Contractility of Failing and Nonfailing Human Heart Muscles in Vitro. Surv Anesthesiol. 1999;43:230-231.
  38. Kunst G, Martin E, Graf BM, Hagl S, Vahl CF. Actions of Ketamine and Its Isomers on Contractility and Calcium Transients in Human Myocardium. Anesthesiology. 1999;90:1363-1371.
  39. Lundy PM, Lockwood PA, Thompson G, Frew R. Differential Effects of Ketamine Isomers on Neuronal and Extraneuronal Catecholamine Uptake Mechanisms. Anesthesiology. 1986;64:359-363.
  40. Selde W. Push dose epinephrine. A temporizing measure for drugs that have the side-effect of hypotension.JEMS. 2014;39:62-63.


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Wishing Everyone a safe tour!

~Faizan H. Arshad, MD @emscritcare


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